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The Mikado's Empire. (Book, ) [icibuxewut.tk]
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Each page is checked manually before printing. As this reprint is from very old book, there could be some missing or flawed pages, but we always try to make the book as complete as possible. Fold-outs, if any, are not part of the book. If the original book was published in multiple volumes then this reprint is of only one volume, not the whole set.
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Inventory No: About this Item: Condition: New. This is a reprint of the original work published in We are professionally publishing these works using the classic text and artwork. The content of this print on demand book has not been changed. The book is printed in black and white.
Illustrations if any are also in black and white. In , imperial "restoration" was declared, and the Shogunate was dissolved. A new constitution described the Emperor as "the head of the Empire, combining in Himself the rights of sovereignty", whose rights included to sanction and promulgate laws, to execute them and to exercise "supreme command of the Army and the Navy".
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The liaison conference created in also made the Emperor the leader of the Imperial General Headquarters. The role of the Emperor as head of the State Shinto religion was exploited during the war, creating an Imperial cult that led to kamikaze bombers and other fanaticism. This in turn led to the requirement in the Potsdam Declaration for the elimination "for all time [of] the authority and influence of those who have deceived and misled the people of Japan into embarking on world conquest".
In State Shinto , the Emperor was believed to be a Arahitogami a living god. Following Japan's surrender, the Allies issued the Shinto Directive separating church and state within Japan. The constitution provides for a parliamentary system of government and guarantees certain fundamental rights. Under its terms, the Emperor of Japan is "the symbol of the State and of the unity of the people" and exercises a purely ceremonial role without the possession of sovereignty.
Currently, it is a rigid document and no subsequent amendment has been made to it since its adoption. In Japanese mythology , according to Kojiki and Nihon Shoki , the Emperor and his family are said to be direct descendants of the sun-goddess Amaterasu. Following the end of the Second World War, the Allies issued the Shinto Directive which abolished the state support for the Shinto religion, leading to the Humanity Declaration of the incumbent Emperor which refuted the idea that the Emperor is a living divine being, and dismissed the importance of "myths and legends" for the Emperor's status.
However, the Emperors have continued to perform many traditional ceremonies privately. The Emperors traditionally had an education officer. Hirohito was crowned as emperor on 25 December and ruled Japan for 6 decades until his death on 7 January Sumeramikoto "the Imperial person" was also used in Old Japanese. Traditionally, the Japanese considered it disrespectful to call any person by his given name , and more so for a person of noble rank. This convention is only slightly relaxed in the modern age and it is still inadvisable among friends to use the given name, use of the family name being the common form of address.
In the case of the imperial family, it is considered extremely inappropriate to use the given name. Since Emperor Meiji, it has been customary to have one era per Emperor and to rename each Emperor after his death using the name of the era over which he presided. Before Emperor Meiji , the names of the eras were changed more frequently, and the posthumous names of the Emperors were chosen differently.
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Hirohito , as usually called in English outside Japan, was never referred to by his name in Japan. In Japanese culture, it is considered a major faux pas to refer to a living Emperor by his era name, since it is only after his death when his era name becomes his posthumous name. Throughout history, Japanese Emperors and noblemen appointed the position of chief wife, rather than just keeping a harem or an assortment of female attendants. Besides the Empress, the Emperor could take, and nearly always took, several secondary consorts " concubines " of various hierarchical degrees.
With the help of all this polygamy, the imperial clan thus was capable of producing more offspring. Sons by secondary consorts were usually recognized as imperial princes, too, and could be recognized as heir to the throne if the empress did not give birth to an heir. Some of them, being widows, had produced children before their reigns. In the succession, children of the empress were preferred over sons of secondary consorts. Thus it was significant which quarters had preferential opportunities in providing chief wives to imperial princes, i. Apparently, the oldest tradition of official marriages within the imperial dynasty were marriages between dynasty members, even half-siblings or uncle and niece.
Such marriages were deemed to preserve better the imperial blood or were aimed at producing children symbolic of a reconciliation between two branches of the imperial dynasty. Japanese monarchs have been, as much as others elsewhere, dependent on making alliances with powerful chiefs and other monarchs. Many such alliances were sealed by marriages. The specific feature in Japan has been the fact that these marriages have been soon incorporated as elements of tradition which controlled the marriages of later generations, though the original practical alliance had lost its real meaning.
A repeated pattern has been an imperial son-in-law under the influence of his powerful non-imperial father-in-law. Beginning from the 7th and 8th centuries, Emperors primarily took women of the Fujiwara clan as their highest wives — the most probable mothers of future monarchs.
This was cloaked as a tradition of marriage between heirs of two kami Shinto deities : descendants of Amaterasu with descendants of the family kami of the Fujiwara. Originally, the Fujiwara were descended from relatively minor nobility, thus their kami is an unremarkable one in the Japanese myth world. To produce imperial children, heirs of the nation, with two-side descent from the two kami, was regarded as desirable — or at least it suited powerful Fujiwara lords, who thus received preference in the imperial marriage market.
The reality behind such marriages was an alliance between an imperial prince and a Fujiwara lord, his father-in-law or grandfather, the latter with his resources supporting the prince to the throne and most often controlling the government.
Earlier, the Emperors had married women from families of the government-holding Soga lords, and women of the imperial clan itself, i. These marriages often were alliance or succession devices: the Soga lord ensured his domination of a prince who would be put on the throne as a puppet; or a prince ensured the combination of two imperial descents, to strengthen his own and his children's claim to the throne. Marriages were also a means to seal a reconciliation between two imperial branches.
The Mikado's Empire.pdf
After a couple of centuries, Emperors could no longer take anyone from outside such families as primary wife, no matter what the expediency of such a marriage and power or wealth brought by such might have been. Only very rarely did a prince ascend the throne whose mother was not descended from the approved families. The earlier necessity and expediency had mutated into a strict tradition that did not allow for current expediency or necessity, but only dictated that daughters of a restricted circle of families were eligible brides, because they had produced eligible brides for centuries.
Tradition had become more forceful than law. Fujiwara women were often Empresses, and concubines came from less exalted noble families. In the last thousand years, sons of an imperial male and a Fujiwara woman have been preferred in the succession. Fujiwara daughters were thus the usual empresses and mothers of Emperors. This restriction on brides for the Emperor and crown prince was made explicit in the Meiji -era Imperial House Law of A clause stipulated that daughters of Sekke the five main branches of the higher Fujiwara and daughters of the imperial clan itself were primarily acceptable brides.
The law was repealed in the aftermath of World War II. The now-Emperor Emeritus Akihito became the first crown prince for over a thousand years to marry a consort from outside the previously eligible circle. During the Kofun period , so-called "archaic funerals" were held for the dead Emperors, but only the funerary rites from the end of the period, which the chronicles describe in more detail, are known. After that, with a few exceptions, all Emperors were cremated up to the Edo period. Until , the Emperors of Japan were usually buried in Kyoto.
The origins of the Japanese imperial dynasty are obscure, and it bases its position on the claim that it has "reigned since time immemorial ". There is suspicion that Emperor Keitai c. However, his descendants, including his successors, were according to records descended from at least one and probably several imperial princesses of the older lineage.
The tradition built by those legends has chosen to recognize just the putative male ancestry as valid for legitimizing his succession, not giving any weight to ties through the said princesses. Millennia ago, the Japanese imperial family developed its own peculiar system of hereditary succession. It has been non-primogenitural, more or less agnatic, based mostly on rotation. Today, Japan uses strict agnatic primogeniture , which was adopted from Prussia , by which Japan was greatly influenced in the s. The controlling principles and their interaction were apparently very complex and sophisticated, leading to even idiosyncratic outcomes.
Some chief principles apparent in the succession have been:. Historically, the succession to the Chrysanthemum Throne has always passed to descendants in male line from the imperial lineage. Generally, they have been males, though over the reign of one hundred monarchs there have been nine women one pre-historical and eight historical as Emperor on eleven occasions.
Over a thousand years ago, a tradition started that an Emperor should ascend relatively young. A dynast who had passed his toddler years was regarded suitable and old enough. Reaching the age of legal majority was not a requirement. Thus, a multitude of Japanese Emperors have ascended as children, as young as 6 or 8 years old. The high-priestly duties were deemed possible for a walking child. A reign of around ten years was regarded a sufficient service.
Being a child was apparently a fine property, to better endure tedious duties and to tolerate subjugation to political power-brokers, as well as sometimes to cloak the truly powerful members of the imperial dynasty. Almost all Japanese empresses and dozens of Emperors abdicated, and lived the rest of their lives in pampered retirement, wielding influence behind the scenes. Several Emperors abdicated to their entitled retirement while still in their teens.
These traditions show in Japanese folklore, theater, literature, and other forms of culture, where the Emperor is usually described or depicted as an adolescent.
The Mikado's Empire.
Before the Meiji Restoration , Japan had eleven reigns of reigning empresses , all of them daughters of the male line of the Imperial House. None ascended purely as a wife or as a widow of an Emperor. Imperial daughters and granddaughters, however, usually ascended the throne as a sort of a "stop gap" measure — if a suitable male was not available or some imperial branches were in rivalry so that a compromise was needed.
Over half of Japanese empresses and many Emperors abdicated once a suitable male descendant was considered to be old enough to rule just past toddlerhood, in some cases. One, Empress Genmei , was the widow of a crown prince and a princess of the blood imperial. None of these empresses married or gave birth after ascending the throne.
Article 2 of the Meiji Constitution the Constitution of the Empire of Japan stated, "The Imperial Throne shall be succeeded to by imperial male descendants, according to the provisions of the Imperial House Law. In the event of a complete failure of the main line, the throne would pass to the nearest collateral branch, again in the male line. If the Empress did not give birth to an heir, the Emperor could take a concubine, and the son he had by that concubine would be recognized as heir to the throne.
This law, which was promulgated on the same day as the Meiji Constitution , enjoyed co-equal status with that constitution. Article 2 of the Constitution of Japan , promulgated in by influence of the U. The government of Prime Minister Yoshida Shigeru hastily cobbled together the legislation to bring the Imperial Household in compliance with the American-written Constitution of Japan that went into effect in May In an effort to control the size of the imperial family, the law stipulates that only legitimate male descendants in the male line can be dynasts; that imperial princesses lose their status as Imperial Family members if they marry outside the Imperial Family;  and that the Emperor and other members of the Imperial Family may not adopt children.
Succession is now regulated by laws passed by the National Diet. The current law excludes women from the succession. A change to this law had been considered until Princess Kiko gave birth to a son. Until the birth of Prince Hisahito , son of Prince Akishino , on September 6, , there was a potential succession problem, since Prince Akishino was the only male child to be born into the imperial family since Following the birth of Princess Aiko , there was public debate about amending the current Imperial Household Law to allow women to succeed to the throne.
In January , Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi appointed a special panel composed of judges, university professors, and civil servants to study changes to the Imperial Household Law and to make recommendations to the government. The panel dealing with the succession issue recommended on October 25, , amending the law to allow females of the male line of imperial descent to ascend the Japanese throne. On January 20, , Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi devoted part of his annual keynote speech to the controversy, pledging to submit a bill allowing women to ascend the throne to ensure that the succession continues in the future in a stable manner.
Shortly after the announcement that Princess Kiko was pregnant with her third child, Koizumi suspended such plans. Her son, Prince Hisahito, is the third in line to the throne under the current law of succession. The Imperial Property Law, which came into effect in January , established two categories of imperial properties: the hereditary or crown estates and the personal "ordinary" properties of the imperial family. The Imperial Household Minister was given the responsibility for observing any judicial proceedings concerning imperial holdings. Under the terms of the law, imperial properties were only taxable in cases where no conflict with the Imperial House Law existed; however, crown estates could only be used for public or imperially-sanctioned undertakings.
Personal properties of certain members of the imperial family, in addition to properties held for imperial family members who were minors, were exempted from taxation. In , the Nagoya Detached Palace Nagoya Castle was donated to the city of Nagoya , with six other imperial villas being either sold or donated at the same time. At the end of , according to official government figures, the Imperial Court owned roughly 3,, acres of landed estates, the bulk of which 2,, acres were the Emperor's private lands, with the total acreage of the crown estates amounting to some , acres; those landholdings comprised palace complexes, forest and farm lands and other residential and commercial properties.
Following Japan's defeat in the Second World War, all of the collateral branches of the imperial family were abolished under the Allied occupation of the country and the subsequent constitutional reforms, forcing those families to sell their assets to private or government owners. Staff numbers in the imperial households were slashed from a peak of roughly to about Since the constitutional reforms, the imperial family has been supported by an official civil list sanctioned by the Japanese government. The largest imperial divestments were the former imperial Kiso and Amagi forest lands in Gifu and Shizuoka prefectures, grazing lands for livestock in Hokkaido and a stock farm in the Chiba region, all of which were transferred to the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries.
Imperial property holdings have been further reduced since after several handovers to the government.