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In general his orders completely, and finally accepting a shameful surrender The efficiency of his measures were in AD 63, asking Nero to recognize Tiridates as king of never put to test, since Vologases was forced to withdraw Armenia. Nero did not only deny their petition, but temporarily due to a revolt led by his son Vardanes. Everything indicates that Nero responded swiftly and adequately to the situation in Armenia. Tacitus describes the tensions The principal sources of information are the classical between the generals when the time came for Vologases texts Suetonius in the Life of Twelve Caesars; Cassius to relieve hostages, in order to know with whom of them Dio in Book LXII of Roman History; and especially these hostages had to stay.

For with negative consequences. He reconciled classic works on the emperor, present him as a capable both generals by bestowing upon them identical honours, and intelligent ruler. This image has been rejected by showing sagacity and political vision in times of military other authors, who place the success of his campaign on campaign. It was a actions as negligent and damaging for the development of victorious campaign for the Romans, taking the cities of the war Hammond Some have even pointed out Artaxata and Tigranocerta Ann.


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At the very that the victory was actually Parthian, while Rome beginning both generals avoided direct conflict, preferring suffered an important setback in foreign affairs Lerouge minor skirmishes and practical guerilla warfare. Tiridates He with the Caudine Forks Ann. Ceasar, instead of spilling more blood Tac. On the other hand, nowhere in the sources can it be confrontation should be avoided at all costs by discerned that Nero and Corbulo were seriously at odds.

It seems therefore that distinguished with the governorship of Syria, an Nero finally chose the third line of action nominal extremely high ranking position, which de facto allowed sovereignty to deal with the Armenian question. This him to retain control over the Euphrates border.

Incursions into Adiabene offered the action. After such a decisive victory, it became Vologases, to launch a new campaign aimed at regaining necessary to decide on how to organize the new political the Armenian throne Tac. At this point situation in Armenia. Nero and Corbulo had different Corbulo asked for help and Nero sent Caesennius Paetus opinions on what measures should be taken, a to direct part of the troops.

For example, Hammond points out his bad conflict.


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Such an insight is impossible to prove; it originates It appears that Corbulo, encouraged by his military from the image portrayed of Nero by the classical sources. A change thought is generally accepted and particularly felt in the was almost taken towards the first line of action, conquest, which would have converted Armenia into a 32 And that will continue in the future, as will show the inability Roman province. Basically because we do not see consisted on placing on the Armenian throne a monarch what benefit will obtain Rome of this provocation, which will generate a situation that could break the balance existing in the chosen by Rome.

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We think that rather it was an individual action on the part of the new Armenian Differences in opinion between emperor and commander monarch, moved by the need to guarantee his new position. A did not necessarily stem from personal dislike. The reliable information of what really happened in their next section will concentrate on this issue with more military campaigns Millar a, Firstly, the general proved great defeat when leading the Roman forces in Armenia, himself incapable of running the campaign efficiently.

The Nevertheless his appointment was not random or Roman commander was clearly inept, lacking caution and impulsive; Nero was merely satisfying the request of his military ability.

Quadrantus Rex by Norbert Coulehan

Nevertheless it is worth noting other main man in the east, Corbulo. The emperor reacted aspects that led to his disaster. For instance, Tacitus swiftly, faced by a complicated situation and the demands stresses the personal problems existing between of his general, showing coherence in his decisions and Caesennius Paetus and Corbulo and openly speaks of their trust in Corbulo.

The mistake lay in the specific choice of mutual dislike for each other.

2ème colosse, Quadratus [SHADOW OF THE COLOSSUS] #2

It is an interesting fact, military command. Likewise other aspects must be taken because Corbulo had also fallen out with his previous into consideration that did not involve the emperor peer, Ummidius Quadratus. Paetus reproached Corbulo directly, such as the friction between the two generals, for not having sealed a real and definite victory over the caused by their different characters and personal Parthians Ann.

On the other hand, Corbulo was ambitions. In according to Tacitus, when things started getting fact, the provincial governor and the Parthian king agreed complicated for Paetus, Corbulo preferred to delay his to put an end to hostilities. The Romans would withdraw intervention in order to increase the glory of his future from their positions over the Euphrates, while the victory.

Parthians would abandon their garrisons in Armenia Ann.

Quadrantus Rex Summary

Nor was Nero asking for Tiridates to be recognized on the throne. Nero interpreted the letter as a mock asking to confirm a Paetus also decided to send false reports to Nero, reality that already existed de facto. He rejected the speaking of great victories and progress in Armenia, when Parthian request and decided to consult on the next step to his initial military movements had not been successful at take among the principal Roman citizens Tac.

Millar has Therefore, the problems experienced throughout the studied the role played by these imperial councillors Roman world to convey information across great Millar a; Millar b. Based on literary sources, distances was definitely another influencing factor. In the author claims that questions related to military and fact, during the early imperial period, with military foreign affairs were closely linked to the emperor. If there command still in the hands of senators not belonging to was a select group of secretaries or specialists dealing with these affairs, no evidence has survived to prove it.

In the Parthian forces, since Vologases already did not have to be dependent on distractions as the Hyrcanian revolt Farrokh 36 , In fact, the Roman—Parthian war of Nero was the last great 35 And, in fact, he was not lacking certain reason, since Corbulo military campaign in the East directed by this type of had conquered Artaxata and Tigranocerta without practically commands, not linked to the imperial house Millar b, Therefore, in our opinion, Millar a, The fact that Nero consulted with Tacitus is probably a more reliable source.

The Nero finally resolved to go to war and for that purpose description of the ceremony may be found in Suetonius granted Corbulo absolute powers, which gave him the Nero. Both authors coincide in the kings and tetrarchs, as well as all governors, procurators grandiloquence of the event and Dio quotes that it cost the and praetors from neighbouring provinces.

Tacitus states Roman treasury 80, denarii From this point onwards, Corbulo The importance of the ceremony must have been very threatened the Parthians with open war by unleashing a great, both for Nero and the Parthians. This moment has series of small attacks that spread fear among the enemy. The whole celebration Tiridates. The Parthian king would renounce his crown must be understood as an act of reaffirmation and political with the promise that it would be returned later from the propaganda, very particularly in the eyes of foreign allies very hands of the emperor in Rome.

This passage is a and enemies, but also internally, broadcasted through the reflection of the three main aspects that characterize celebration of games, the embellishment of Rome, etc. His words very openly and commitment to the third line of action or nominal addressed his enemies, especially the Parthians, extolling sovereignty. The complexity of the whole affair was full of conflict at any cost, even if it meant leading it himself messages to the Roman people.

Somehow Nero sold an D. In the end, Corbulo secretly advised Vologases to send Tiridates to Rome to supplicate the crown from Nero, 38 It seems that both descriptions are based on the detailed forcing the emperor to act as a condescending ruler.

QUADRANTUS REX | Norbert Coulehan

Dio account that Pliny offered in his Naturalis Historia, offers a pejorative image of the emperor, comparing him unfortunately lost except for some little details about the to a much more capable and shrewd general. However the decoration of the city done in honour of the visit of the account offered by Tacitus reveals itself as the most Armenian king NH.

To start with, it was written much closer in 39 This is especially evident in the reconstruction that the time to events. On these issues and the question of the campaign againts the pirates. For example, Ch. Lerouge defends 6. They only wanted to avoid armed conflict with Rome and for that reason agreed to certain gestures that The Roman—Parthian War fought in Armenian territory would appease Nero in a situation in which forces had marked a point of inflection in the diplomatic relationship proven to be equal Lerouge , — It was between both powers.

Roman policy was centred around two main and military affairs in the east. Cassius Dio explains that the sanctioned by the Roman emperor. Domitius Corbulo committed suicide in AD 67 in during the reign of the Julio—Claudian emperors Tiberius Greece, after learning that Nero intended to have him and Claudius, with no successful result. Real sovereignty executed. On Hammond , There is no incorporation of new territories to the empire as a Roman clear evidence for an enmity between emperor and province— was never in reach.

Failed attempts transpired general during the war. Much to the contrary, the solution during the 1st C BC and in later campaigns by the to the Armenian question only arrived after Nero granted Antonines and Severans. Rome never managed to absolute power to Corbulo in the east. In AD 67 the war establish permanent control over any territory beyond the was long gone and the political situation had become very Euphrates River.

One of of inflection in the Armenian question and a great success them was directed against Corbulo, a man of great in his foreign policy, leading to fifty years of peace in the reputation, esteemed by senators and the people The end to the Armenian participation in the revolts of Rubelius Plautus or Piso. Both expedite of decisions Vervaet , — Rome and Parthia could claim to have been successful.

However, throughout the resolution of the Armenian Although Rome lost some influence over Armenia, the question, no personal problems existed between the empire still played a fundamental role in the sovereignty of the kingdom. Moreover peace brought stability to the eastern limes and converted an enemy into an ally.

Nero presented himself as regent, not only military alter ego in the Near East. In reality, we know that Nero did not actually reassessed. Rome would have to wait until the 2nd C AD to proved to be successful, especially the appointment of exercise such a power in Armenia. Naturally not all his decisions were the right ones, beginning and the regard found for this imperial figure in the most evident mistake being his choice of Caesennius Parthia.

After having understood the events leading to the Paetus to aid Corbulo. Imperial policy allowed Parthia to only punctual mistakes in an overall coherent direction. It reinforce its position in Armenia and put an end to is difficult to determine the degree of influence played by confrontation with its most dangerous enemy. Furthermore Parthia obtained a crucial diplomatic However it is highly improbable that Nero delegated his recognition from Rome, which positioned the kingdom as decision making completely, reduced to the role of a the leading Asian power in the east. For these reasons, passive agent.

He was also liked by the popular classes, placed on his eastern affairs. It comes as no surprise then that his memory remained vivid for a long time in the east. Mesopotamia and beyond. The end of a dynasty, Seleucid, the Parthian and the Sasanian periods, London. Cambridge, 21 — CARY, E. Die and the East, vol. PANI, M. Cappadocia, Armenia, Media Atropatene, Bari.

Persia, Cambridge. Parthian and Roman Near East, — Sasanid empires, Oxford.

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